T.Y.Lin Lecture

Quanke Su

Key technologies for construction and maintenance of the main project of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge

Quanke SuHong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Authority, China

The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, with a total length of 55 kilometers and a design life of 120 years, crosses the Sea of Lingdingyang and connects three cities of Hong Kong, Macao, and Zhuhai of China. It integrates tunnel, island and bridge structures. It is the most difficult cross-sea cluster project in the world which had ever been built. The project adopts industrialized construction mode, focuses on green environmental protection and technical innovations, and harmonizes with the surrounding natural environment, thus becoming a landmark in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. Major technical break-throughs have been made in the construction of super-long immersed tube tunnels in the sea, bridge-tunnel transition artificial islands, assembled bridges, 120-year guarantee of structure durability, and etc. This lecture will introduce key technologies for construction and maintenance of the main project of HZMB.

Keynote Lecture

Ichiro Iwaki

Digital transformation of bridges inspection, monitoring and maintenance processes

Tulio N. BittencourtUniversity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

New communication and information systems and technologies - known as ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) - have immense potential to aggregate new functionalities and services to the management of infrastructure assets. This phenomenon, known as 'Digital Transformation', has influenced the evolution of various sectors of our society, such as the emergence of 'Industry 4.0'. New wireless communication technologies, such as 5G networks (large capacity communication, high reliability, great coverage and low consumption, for information processing and management - such as Cloud Computing, Edge Computing, Big Data, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence - are considered as the enabling technologies of this digital transformation, integrated with the concept of IoT(Internet of Things). High connectivity capacity and intensive automation enable, for example, changes in inspection paradigms and asset maintenance by transferring product focus to service platforms ('Everything' as a Service - XaaS), bringing gains for efficiency, productivity, comfort and operational safety, as well as cost reduction. Bridges constitute an important part of the infrastructure and are subjected to damage caused by their continuous use over time. In addition to the effects of loading (fatigue, impacts, overloads, etc.), they are subjected to degradation of materials and support conditions, as well as exposure to adverse environmental conditions (storms, floods, gale, earthquakes, etc.). Scheduled inspections to assess their structural conditions are essential to ensure their proper use within the established safety limits. In other occasions, continuous or repeated monitoring of structural responses of bridges (displacements, vibrations and rotations at critical points) may add important information for decision-making regarding its maintenance, repair and reinforcement. The use of these data, together with techniques of structural reliability for the treatment of the uncertainties, allows predictions about the structural behavior to be elaborated with the consideration of different loading and degradation scenarios. The new ICTs can greatly contribute to the improvement of maintenance capacity and, consequently, to the reliability of the assets and to the operational availability of the system. Thus, the development of new predictive maintenance approaches, which make use of the large amount of data available, can improve the efficiency of maintenance processes, producing more accurate and reliable anticipated diagnostics. In this way, Digital Transformation can reduce maintenance costs (avoiding unnecessary maintenance events) and improve system availability, reducing operational losses. The use of Big Data Analytics techniques, incorporating Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, are innovative solutions that can be introduced. The adoption of Digital Twins, that incorporate all these tools, can lead to a reduction in the total cost, allowing predictive and proactive maintenance. The concept of a Digital Twin for a railway bridge will be illustrated in this paper.

Ichiro Iwaki

How to design, construct, and maintain highly-durable concrete bridges in cold and local regions

Ichiro IwakiNihon University, Japan

In Japan, reinforced concrete deck slabs of major road bridges in cold regions have suffered from rapid aging due to the large-scale use of de-icing agent. Additionally, a large number of minor bridges in farming and other local regions are facing lack of financial and technological resources for maintenance. In this lecture, some methodologies to design, construct, and maintain highly-durable concrete bridges in cold and local regions are introduced. Firstly, six full size RC deck slabs on steel main girders were reproduced in the university campus. Varying the materials and mixture proportions, and construction methods for each slab, the performance was evaluated. The test and evaluation results were effective to develop highly-durable concrete deck slabs having excellent durability and crack resistance even under harsh chloride environment. Then, the developed deck slab based on the multiple protection strategy has been applied to reconstruction roads in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake-damaged regions.

To maintain infrastructures by a simple preventive method, the spirit of fushin, is a starting point for civil engineering in Japan, is deeply ingrained in local regions. The concept of fushin is “the infrastructure desired by local residents should be built and maintained by themselves.” The latter part of this lecture covers a modern-day version of this traditional maintenance method that has been introduced to local communities and put into practice.

Erik Stoklund Larsen

Development of the requirements to major infrastructure projects

Erik Stoklund LarsenDanish Road Directorate, Denmark

This presentation will describe how the Road Directorate works with the development and execution of construction of large infrastructure projects. The presentation will be divided into two parts, respectively, the framework for reducing climate and environmental impact and the challenge of norms and standards respectively; some illustrated by examples.

In the planning phase, implementation of how the project best can contribute to meeting society's need for mobility must be implemented, which is often regarded as a prerequisite for economic growth and human well-being. The planning must include the latest knowledge on climate and environmental impact associated with the infrastructure life from cradle to grave - and add knowledge that can form the basis for decisions on a focused and cost-effective climate action. The planning also includes factors that determine how biodiversity can be maintained as well as other considerations for the surrounding environment, including protected nature and habitat areas.

The presentation will include examples of the optimization of the design assumptions, considering the risks associated with the geotechnical conditions and relevant load conditions such as ice and ship impact. Examples will be taken from the new Roskilde Fjord Link and the coming road- and railway bridge crossing Storstrømmen.

Francisco Millanes Mato

Some lessons of more than 20 years of inspection, maintenance and rehabilitation of bridges in Spain

Francisco Millanes MatoTechnical University of Madrid, Spain

Spanish Management System for the inspection, maintenance and rehabilitation of bridges has been implemented for nearly 25 years. IDEAM has been involved in it since the beginning, with more than 2000 inspections, 150 damage assessments and 100 reinforcement projects carried out. Main consequences of this huge data collection will be presented focusing on how to improve our projects and technical recommendations.

Several items will be detailed, such as drainage and waterproofing pathologies, ducts injection in ponstensioned concrete girders, internal corrosion of weathering steel box girder bridges, corbels, fatigue, bearings, stays inspection and replacement, and other special cases.

Nigel Powers

Rising to the challenge of managing bridges in Australia

Nigel G. PowersAustralian Road Research Board, Australia

Australia’s freight task is growing at a rapid rate due to unprecedented population growth, coupled with increased demand from our trading partners in Asia and rapid changes in technology, e-commerce and consumer behavior. A significant proportion of freight is transported using the road network and to remain competitive this network needs to facilitate fast, efficient and effective access. This is a significant challenge with an ageing bridge network, the regularly extreme climatic conditions and the freight industry constantly pushing to increase access and allowable loads.

In rising to this challenge, Australia’s infrastructure managers are being innovative, using the latest standards and technology in building new bridges and assessing existing bridges and utilizing the latest technology in managing existing bridge structures. In partnership with academic institutions and with funding from the State and Federal Governments, there has been significant research and development with the monitoring, modelling, assessment and strengthening of bridges.

This paper will outline what is currently being done to rise to this significant challenge and also recommend future research and development to continue to meet this challenge.

Richard Sause

Fatigue resistant rib-to-floor beam connections for orthotropic steel bridge decks with potential for reduced cost using automated fabrication

Richard SauseLehigh University, PA, USA

Orthotropic steel bridge decks (OSDs) have been utilized across the world in both new bridges, and as replacement decks for preserving existing bridges. An OSD consists of a continuous steel deck plate with longitudinal ribs that pass through transverse floor beams (or diaphragms). These components are joined using welded connections. The transverse floor beams (or diaphragms) are supported by primary longitudinal components of the bridge superstructure, including girders, girder webs, trusses, and/or cables. An OSD allows a bridge deck to be integral with this supporting bridge superstructure, resulting in increased rigidity and decreased material use. An OSD is lighter in weight, is easier to assemble due to its modular nature, and has potential to offer a longer service life than other bridge deck systems. One barrier to increased use of OSDs in the United States has been a relatively high initial cost of fabrication, resulting from specified details used to achieve the desired fatigue resistance of its welded connections.

Modern orthotropic decks are usually designed with relatively thin closed ribs (U-shaped or trapezoidal-shaped) and relatively thick deck plates. Each rib passes continuously through a matching cut-out in the floor beam. Fabrication of the connection of the rib to the floor beam, i.e., the rib-to-floor beam (RFB) connection, is often labor intensive, which adversely impacts the fabrication cost of OSDs. The RFB connection is also fatigue sensitive because it is subjected to complex in-plane and out-of-plane deformations and stresses from vehicular loads on the steel deck plate.

The presentation discusses: (1) the fabrication features of three types of RFB connections for OSDs and the potential for using automated fabrication processes for these RFB connections; (2) the potential fatigue performance of these RFB connections based on finite element analysis and fatigue design standards from the United States bridge design specifications; and (3) results from fabricating and testing full-scale laboratory OSD specimens with different RFB connections. Conclusions related to the applicability of these RFB connections in OSDs are given.

Bill F. Spencer, Jr.

Energy-efficient autonomous framework for monitoring railroad bridges
Using wireless smart sensors

Bill F. Spencer, Jr.University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

One of the most critical components of the US transport system is railroads: providing means of transportation for 85,000 passengers daily and 40% of the national freight tonnage. Despite such important tasks, more than half of the railroad bridges, the essential component of railroads to maintain flow of network, were built before 1920 ? making it the most fragile component of the railroad system. Worsened by insufficient maintenance, this issue caused hundreds of injuries, fatalities, and billions of dollars of damage. Visual inspection, wired and wireless systems have been deployed but none is designed specifically to address the challenges of railroad bridges monitoring, including: 1) limited energy source for sensors; 2) short and random nature of train schedule; 3) un-available autonomous monitoring systems; and 4) difficult rapid decision-making process due to long data processing time.

This presentation focuses on efforts to develop an autonomous schedule-based framework for monitoring railroad bridges using wireless smart sensor network (WSSN). This framework, which bases on WSSN platform Xnode, makes use of multiple components, including both hardware, software, and algorithms to fulfill the needs for railroad bridge condition monitoring. In addition, more flexibilities for future applications and allowing trade-off between energy and data-efficiency is introduced by a schedule-based approach that incorporates information of the surrounding factors. To demonstrate the efficacy of this system, a full-scale monitoring campaign is reported. With all these improvements to overcome the challenges while monitoring railroad bridges, this system is expected to be an important tool for decision makers.

Man-Chung Tang

Why they call Chongqing the bridge capital of China?

Man-Chung TangT.Y. LIN International, China

Why they call Chongqing the bridge capital of China? Here are the main reasons:
1. Bridge construction in Chongqing is most progressive; 2. Chongqing has most bridges in proportion to land area; 3. Chongqing has the most variety of bridges; 4. Bridges in Chongqing are more accessible; 5. People in Chongqing love their bridges; 6. Bridges in Chongqing are very beautiful!

Nobuyoshi Yabuki

Applications of cutting-edge Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to bridge maintenance: Effects, challenges, and future directions

Nobuyoshi YabukiOsaka University, Japan

Although the maintenance of infrastructure such as bridges, tunnels, looks unglamorous work, insufficient inspection and repair would cause serious consequences which are fatal to humans. As a huge amount of structures built during the high economic growth period are approaching the end of their life, asset management, especially, extension of the longevity of bridges, on a limited budget has become a crucial issue. Furthermore, due to the retirement of a large number of maintenance engineers with expertise and lack of the young generation in this field, sustainability and knowledge transfer have become significant concerns. However, it is difficult to spend substantial money on infrastructure maintenance unlike construction. Therefore, nowadays, the applications of advancing Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which is making a big impact to both society and industry, are expected to lead to innovative efficiency and to the improved sophistication of the infrastructure maintenance. This keynote lecture will review the research on the applications of cutting-edge ICT such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Building Information Modeling (BIM), Augmented/Mixed Reality (AR/MR), drones, laser scanning, point cloud, etc., to infrastructure maintenance, discuss their effects and challenges, and consider the future directions.

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Mini-Symposia & Special Sessions' Proposal February 15, 2019
March 15, 2019
Abstract Submission May 1, 2019
June 1, 2019
Notification Regarding the Abstract August 1, 2019
Full Paper Submission November 15, 2019
December 1, 2019
Final Paper Acceptance December 15, 2019
December 26, 2019
Final Paper Submission January 8-15, 2020
Early Bird-Registration February 15, 2020